Combustion: Rod-stabilized V-flame

Table of Contents

Introduction

We used different visualization techniques and sofware to render a three-dimensional, time-dependent simulation of a laboratory-scale rod-stabilized premixed turbulent V-flame[1]. The surface of the flame is composed of 633890 vertices and 1268737 triangles, the data for each vertex is the curvature.

3D Visualization

AVS/Express

AVS/Express[2] is a very flexible visualization package that allows the user to quickly develop his/her own modules and provides an extensive library of built in modules. We used it to make high resolution images and to create movies from them. See Figure 1.

Figure1. AVS/Express rendering of the polygonal mesh colored by the curvature.
Click to see a Movie This movie shows a rotating view of the flame and the AMR hierarchy.

CEI Ensight

CEI's EnSight[3] is a software package used for analyzing, visualizing and communicating high-end scientific and engineering datasets that can take full advantage of the parallel-processing machines and can handle models containing hundreds of millions of nodes, and in the near future, billions of nodes. Figure 2 shows the results of the rendering.
Figure 2. CEI Ensight rending

POV-Ray

Ensight provides a writer for POV-Ray[4] data format. POV-Ray (The Persistence of Vision Ray-Ttracer) creates three dimensional photo-realistic images using ray-tracing. Ray tracing is a rendering technique that calculates an image of a scene by simulating the way rays of light travel in the world. It starts from the camera an backtraces the rays into the scene. We used Ensight to output the POV-Ray files and rendered the flame using an AMD 64 linux machine. See Figure 3 for the results. A similar image appeared as the cover of the Procedding of the National Academy of Sciences of the U.S.A

Figure 3. POV-Ray rending

Click here to see a ray-traced movie

References

[1] J. B. Bell, M. S. Day, I. G. Shepherd, M. Johnson, R. K. Cheng, J. F. Grcar, V. E. Beckner, M. J. Lijewski, "Numerical Simulation of a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent V-flame", LBNL Report LBNL-54198-Journal, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102(29), 10006-10011, 2005.
[2] http://www.avs.com
[3] http://www.ceintl.com
[4] http://www.povray.org